In 1698 Tsar Peter the Great established the Order of Saint Andrew. The X-shaped cross of Russia’s patron saint became an integral part of Russian naval flag design and inspired a number of naval jacks and ensigns in countries around the world.
The naval ensign of the Russian Federation, also know in Russian as “the Andreyevsky flag”, has a blue saltire (a diagonal cross, or a Saint Andrew’s cross) on white. It was designed by Tsar Peter personally and in its present form it has been Russia’s naval ensign since the 1710s (except from the time between the Communist Revolution and the fall of the Soviet Union). It is used by the Russian Navy and on board its warships, submarines and auxiliary vessels.
The Russian naval jack and fortress flag also originated in the 1710s during the reign of Peter the Great. It is a red flag with a white narrow cross on which is superimposed a blue saltire with white edges. The jack is flown from the bow of a naval vessel when it’s moored or at anchor. The fortress flag is raised on a flagpole at coastal fortresses and naval shore installations.
The Russian Coast Guard ensign is green and also has on it the blue saltire with white edges. The flag is used by all Coast Guard vessels. The Coast Guard is part of the border force of the Russian Federal Security Service (FSB).
The flag of Arkhangelsk Oblast, adopted in 2009, has the provincial coat of arms and a blue saltire on white. The oblast, or province, is the home of Russia’s largest naval shipyard. The city of Arkhangelsk lies where the Northern Dvina river meets the White Sea. It is the most important harbour on the country’s northern coastline.
The naval jack of Uruguay shares two features with the country’s national flag: “The Sun of May” is in the centre, and the colours of the national flag are arranged as a blue saltire on white.
The naval ensign of Belgium has a saltire of black-yellow-red, the three colours from the Belgien national flag, with an anchor, two crossed cannons and a crown, all in black.
The naval jack of Bulgaria has the three colours of the Bulgarian national flag, but with a different design: A white background with a red cross superimposed on a green saltire.
The naval jack of Estonia also has the colours of the national flag arranged differently: A blue cross on a black saltire, all on a white background.
The naval ensign of Georgia has a white saltire on a red cross, all on blue. This flag is the youngest naval ensign of what could be called “the Andreyevsky naval flag family”. It came into use in 2004 at the same time as the national flag of Georgia was changed to its present design.
This is part 2 in a series about Saint Andrew’s crosses in flags. Read also Saint Andrew’s Day.